Standard Gear Packing List

Standard Gear Packing List

How to Use This List

If you really want to get a backpacker talking, ask them about their pack and what is in it. Perhaps no topic is more controversial in backpacking sub-culture than what you should carry on your trip. Check out any public forum and you are sure to encounter hundreds of unique responses . In reality, there is only one right answer: it depends. Since you are on this page however, I will provide a little insight into what I usually take with me, in hopes that it helps make your own planning a little easier.

Please don’t take this list as law. Before you go on any trip, ask yourself a few critical questions:

  • Where are you going (woods, mountains, desert, beach, etc.)?
  • What temperatures are you expecting? What is the coldest it could possibly go? What is the warmest it could be?
  • What are the chances of rain / snow / lightning?
  • How long will you be gone?
  • Will you need to resupply food / water? If so, how do you plan to resupply?

Once you have answered these, think about what adjustments you might want to make from this list. If you still aren’t sure, check out one of my other posts in the Gear Guide section of my website for a little extra direction.


The Big Ticket Essentials

These are the large, must have items that will probably eat up around ~70% of the space in your pack and ~70% of the dollars that you have invested in your loadout. While it’s hard to leave any of these items behind, be sure that you have done your research and have items that are a good fit your trip.

  1. Backpack: You can’t go backpacking without a pack but having the right one for your needs can make a world of difference. Size, weight, and personal fit should all be considered. I currently use an 80L Kelty Coyote for large loads and long distances.
  2. Tent: Your home away from home when on the trail. Tents come in all different shapes, sizes, and colors, but in my experience almost any will do. One caveat is that not all tents are free standing, so if camping on surfaces where driving stakes in will be difficult, I would recommend one that is self-supporting. On solo adventures, I have been using the Flashlight 1 UL by Sierra Designs
  3. Sleeping bag: Critical to ensuring you are warm and cozy at night, a sleeping bag should be brought on all but the warmest of trips. Most bags come with a temperature rating, so make sure the one you carry is cut out for the most extreme weather you could conceivably face. I have been using the
  4. Sleeping mat: The item you will spend the most time on outside of your boots, check out my breakdown to learn more about how to pick the perfect mat. Recently, I have been sleeping on the Therm-a-Rest NeoAir Xtherm.

Eating & Drinking

  1. Stove: Whether cooking an extravagant backcountry meal or just boiling water for morning coffee, an outdoor stove is a must for anywhere open fires are not allowed. And sadly, due to the severity of wildfires of late, that is most places. If carrying backpacking fuel, I bring along my miniature MSR PocketRocket. On international trips or those with lots of refueling, I opt for the trusty MSR Whisperlite Universal, which can process all types of fuel including “dirty gas” .
  2. Fuel / fuel canister: Most backpackers prefer the handy portable canisters optimized for popular stoves like the MSR or Jetboil models. If you need something with more versatile when there may not be an outdoor store on your route, you can buy a bottle designed for holding fuel.
  3. Matches / lighter: It’s difficult to use a stove or open fire without being able to light one, so unless you are a primitive survival expert, you’ll want to bring matches or a lighter. If going with matches, consider waterproof ones.
  4. Water treatment: It is never a good idea to drink water directly out of a source, no matter how pure it looks. In fact, many recommend using multiple methods of water treatment as different treatments are more effective at killing bacteria vs. viruses. I always carry a SteriPen in addition to a water filter.
  5. Pots / pans / mugs: Bring what you need and no more. Eating right out of the pot is a great way to save on space and weight in this department.
  6. Utensils: Every backpacker carries a good spork, potentially alongside other collapsible utensils.
  7. Water bottles: Staying hydrated should always be a priority on the trail, so always carry more water than you think you’ll need. If refill points are few and far between, look to additional containers like a HydraPak.

Other Must Haves

  1. Map & compass: Even if you have electronics to guide you, it’s always a good idea to have a map and compass just in case. Make sure you know how to use them (ever heard of declination?); if you don’t, REI and other outdoor shops often offer free classes
  2. GPS / PLB: On short trips, a map and compass may suffice, but if you plan on stepping far away from civilization you need a GPS or PLB (personal locator beacon). These devices will not just help you find your way but can alert authorities if something goes on. Please do not just rely on your phone, I would recommend products from a trusted brand like Garmin.
  3. First aid kit: Always prepare for the worst and hope for the best. You can buy compact kits designed for hiking and backpacking at most outdoor stores
  4. Headlamp: Backpacking overnight means finding your way in the dark. Hopefully you are all settled into camp before you take out your torch, but you will want to be prepared either way. I use a Black Diamond Spot, which allows me to power with standard AAA batteries or rechargeable ones.
  5. Multi-tool / knife: While you may be able to do without, you would be surprised how handy they can prove to be. I have used my Leatherman Squirt for everything from opening pesky food containers to fixing a broken stove and backpack.
  6. Toiletries: Bring what you need, but please be mindful of the environmental impacts. Nothing is worse than plopping down in a pristine campsite and then finding an exposed cache of toilet paper. If on longer trips where you will be doing your serious business outdoors, a trowel becomes a must have.
  7. Sunscreen and/or bug spray: Whether these are actually “must haves” depends on the locale, but if you need them you definitely won’t want to forget them. Pro tip, I find a bug net to be more comfortable than spray.

The Comfort Items (Non-Essentials)

  1. Hiking poles: Though poles are considered optional, I only leave them behind on the shortest of trips. They provide a lot of benefits in terms of stability on uneven surfaces, joint relief when moving downhill, and prevention against swelling in your hands. Savvy ultralighters often use them to replace tent stakes as well.
  2. Inflatable pillow: Maybe the ultimate comfort item. Expendable on treks where space will be an issue, but key to a good night’s sleep on short trips. If I have room, I tend to bring along my Klymit Luxe pillow.
  3. Microfiber towel: While not technically a necessity, I rarely camp without a mini towel. A quick face wash or sponge bath at the end of the day makes sleeping much more comfortable. They dry almost instantly in direct sun and can also be used to wipe down dishes and other items.
  4. Body glide: My secret weapon in the constant battle against chafing, I never go more than a few miles without my Body Glide balm. They also make Foot Glide for protecting against blisters.
  5. Biodegradable soaps: Handy for cleaning dishes and yourself, soap is usually an optional but nice to have item on the trail. Please protect your environment though and select biodegradable, non-scented products
  6. Solar charger: Nowadays, almost everyone hikes with some sort of electronics, whether it be a phone, camera, fitness monitor, or GPS. On longer journeys, these may require a solar charger from the likes of GoalZero or Anker to remain operational. Should you be reliant on a GPS for wayfinding, this may be a necessity.
  7. Solar lantern: As a total convenience, I often bring along my inflatable, solar powered Luci Mpowerd on short trips or group excursions. It is relatively compact, can hang from the top of a tent, and casts much broader light than a normal headlamp. It also allows you to look around at others without blinding them.

Clothing

  1. Hiking boots: The key to comfort on the trail is undoubtedly well-fitting boots (have you seen / read Wild?). I love my La Sportivas, but everyone’s feet are different so try before you buy and be sure to break them in before you embark on a long trek.
  2. 3x socks & underwear: Allow for an extra pair just in case “laundry” becomes a challenge. Wool socks are great as they minimize smell retention and prevent blistering. For underwear I prefer synthetic materials as they usually dry faster.
  3. 2x shirts: I tend to bring one short sleeve and one long sleeve. Dry-fit materials are my favorite, but I adjust based on the expected climate.
  4. 2x pants: Again, one short pair and one long. Zip offs are much loved by trekkers for a little extra versatility. If you are looking for a more premium pant, I love my Kuhl Radikls for flex comfort and my Fjallraven Vidda Pros for durability
  5. Warm layer: Wool or down are generally considered the best materials here. Down is usually lighter and more compact, but it cannot get wet.
  6. Wet layer: Rain layers typically double as a wind layer and thus are a good idea regardless of whether precipitation is expected. If you are anticipating very wet conditions, you may also want to consider rain pants.

Feedback

What did I miss? What are other “must haves” or “comfort items” are in your pack? Do you have any tips or tricks to maximizing utility and minimizing space? Please let me know your thoughts in the comments below.

Disclaimer: I do not receive any compensation for recommending these products and all opinions / recommendations are solely based on my own experiences

What is R-value? And picking the perfect sleeping mat

WHAT IS R-VALUE? And PICKing THE Perfect SLEEPING MAT

When I first started backpacking and was in the process of acquiring gear, only two things were on my mind: weight and cost. It was my goal then to start working towards some serious thru hikes and I knew that as the miles grew longer, every ounce in my pack would become more precious. I also knew the unfortunate truth that cost often begets quality when it comes to outdoor gear. Still, I was a student and working within a tight budget.

Fast forward one year, and there I was on the Drakensburg Grand Traverse in full fetal position, trying to get through a brutally cold night, wondering what it was that had gone wrong. I had been warned that temperatures may drop on the South African plateau, but I also believed I had come prepared. My sleeping bag was rated for cold temperatures and at its worst the cold snap never pushed temperatures below the low teens (about -12C).

For a few years I blamed my bag. It was real down and occasionally leaked feathers, so naturally I assumed it was partially defective. It wasn’t until my trusty sleeping mat sprung a leak and I was in the market for a new one that I realized I had the identified wrong culprit. In optimizing for lightweight and cheap I had selected a mat that provided almost no insulation and thus was causing me to lose valuable heat via contact with the cold ground.

All this goes to say, not all sleeping mats are the same, and picking the right one for your trip can mean the difference between a peaceful night outdoors and ascetic suffering. Below, I have done my best to share some valuable tips and tricks that may help you sort through the noise.


What is R-value?

One number that you are likely to see featured prominently on packaging or review sites for camping mats is ‘r-value‘. In short, r-value is a measure of “insulating power” that reflects an object’s ability to resist heat flow. This means that the higher an r-value is, the better a mat will be at keeping you warm.

How important is this you might ask? Well that depends on the conditions where you are camping, but if its chilly out, the answer is incredibly important. No matter how warm it is during the day, ground temperatures will always be lower than your body’s equilibrium temperature and thus draw heat from you. Also, since you are in direct contact with the ground, warmth will be lost much faster through conduction. Prolonged exposure to cold ground is actually much more dangerous than exposure to cold air.

Now as you may have surmised, your camping mat is not the only thing in your pack that provides critical insulation at night. Your sleeping bag, clothing, tarp and even tent can play a role. However, the following diagram can serve as a general guide to help you decide what type of sleeping mat will best suit your needs temperature-wise:

Note: The amount of insulation that one needs for comfort or survival will vary person to person, depending on a variety of factors such as age, sex, weight, metabolic rate, etc. If you “sleep cold”, you may want to err on the side of comfort and choose a mat with a higher r-value. Generally, men tend to sleep warmer (and thus require a lower r-value), while women usually sleep colder.


Other considerations

Material / typeThis is basically a choice between two styles of mat: foam vs. inflatable. A foam or “egg crate” mat is the original outdoor sleeping mat and many experienced hikers swear by their durability, versatility, and flash setup. Inflatable air mattresses, on the other hand, are a modern solution to reducing pack size and increasing comfort.
Size (unpacked) Some mats will come in different sizes (i.e., S / L / XL) that correspond to the length and width of the mat when unfolded / inflated. Prior to purchasing a mat, ensure that you have selected a size that will fit your own dimensions. If in search of supreme comfort, you may want to ensure you have budgeted a few extra inches to keep you from sliding off in the middle of the night.
Size (packed)Whether you subscribe to the principles of ultralight backpacking or are just looking for something to take on a weekend trip, smaller is always better. I tend to use a Nalgene water bottle as my gauge for a good compact size, while ultralight options may be ~50% smaller and extra-insulated expedition mats could be as much as 200% larger.
WeightAs with packed size, less is more when it comes to the weight of your outdoor gear. Mats are one of four large essentials items that most backpackers carry (along with their pack, tent, and bag) so it is great place to look to cut out some extra ounces. Most will be somewhere in the range of 8oz.- 2lbs.
ThicknessWhen it comes to mats, thickness is the closest proxy for comfort. In general, they may run as thin as ~0.5 inches or as thick as ~3 inches. If you are most concerned about a good night’s sleep, opt for more. However, it is worth noting textured mats with different air pockets may have thin spots that can prove uncomfortable if they hit in the wrong spots. Try before you buy.

Recommendations

Great for low cost: Klymit Static V (~$60)

My go-to option for years, the Klymit Static V is a dependable 3-season mat that, at ~$60, is a bargain in the world of outdoor gear. Packing down to about the size of a small water bottle and weighing in at no more than 1lb. 2oz., you can conveniently take it anywhere that it isn’t freezing (r-value: 1.3). The mat can be difficult to re-pack due to a compressed stuff sack and some newer models have a mouthpiece that is tedious, but as far as shortcomings go, the issues are small potatoes. While technically pricier than most foam mats, the extra padding offered as an inflatable makes the Static V a great entry-level mat for all but the most intrepid backpackers.


Great for ultralight: Therm-A-Rest NeoAir Uberlite (~$250)

As the featured ultralight line from a brand that specializes in sleeping gear, long-distance trekkers cognizant of base weight and pack size cannot go wrong with the Therm-a-Rest NeoAir UberLite. Despite weighing in at just 6 ounces and packing down to 6 x. 3.3in., the NeoAir UberLite has a generous thickness of 2.5in. and a suitable r-value of 2.3. Combine this with the quality of the brand and it’s lifetime warranty, and you have a premium sleeping mat ideal for those in search of a best-in class product for serious exploration.


Great for cold weather: Therm-a-Rest NEOAIR Xtherm (~$250)

The sister product of the UberLite, Therm-a-Rest’s NeoAir Xtherm is a similar camping mat intended for cold winter conditions. The primary difference between the two mats is that for the cost of few extra dollars and approximately 14 ounces of additional weight, the Xtherm offers a significantly higher r-value of 6.9. This is provided via a thin insulating layer that, much like a space blanket, blocks the transfer of body heat into the cold ground. For those who envision taking trips that involve camping in sub-freezing temperatures, the Xtherm is just one way to make your excursion a little more enjoyable.


Great for maximum comfort: Big Agnes Insulated Air Core (~$140)

When maximizing for comfort one should really be maximizing for thickness and there are few products on the market of reasonable weight, size, and cost that offer more thickness than the Big Agnes Insulated Air Core. The vertical “I-beam” design keeps one centered on the mat and helps ensure a good night’s sleep. Additionally, it comes with a handy inflation sack that makes the Big Agnes much easier to set up at night (especially given the extra air that is required). My only complaint is that it can be a little noisy as one shifts around on the mat. Though its size may not make the Air Core the best option for thru-hikes, it should be within the consideration set for light sleepers, short trips, and car camping.


Great for durability: Nemo Switchback (~$50)

As a leader in the foam mat space, Nemo’s Switchback is a reliable option for those seeking to optimize for durability and versatility in their mat. Though bulkier than inflatable options, foam pads can be strapped to the outside of backpacks without fear of damage, and thus may take up less valuable pack space than alternatives. The ability to fold the Switchback into an elevated seat, as well as its utility on rough, uneven surfaces make it a favorite of long-distance hikers and rugged expeditionists. Fair warning however, not all backpackers enjoy using foam and side-sleepers especially may prefer the extra thickness / clearance offered by inflatables. Generally all foam mats are can be considered similar, but as a reputable brand with slightly thicker foam than some leading competitors, I would recommend the Switchback.


Disclaimer: I do not receive any compensation for recommending these products and all opinions / recommendations are solely based on my own experiences